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法治的定义

热度 5已有 7415 次阅读1/12/2011 15:16 |个人分类:法治|系统分类:政治

南郭点评:语言是交流思想,争辩讨论问题,传情达义的工具,思想意识必须通过语言的自由表达,才能进行交流争辩,因此,现代哲学家称“人是 符号动物”,正如亚里士多德所说“人是政治动物”一样。由于语言是一种抽象符号,由字、词、句、段落组成,又由于思想必须通过语言才能表达,还由于清晰的 思想唯有通过明确的概念才有可能传达,因此,任何思想的交流,首先必须明确概念和定义,否则根本无法进行有效的思维,争辩与交流学习。法治的定义,与所有 事物的概念一样,经历了历史的发展传承,尽管有无数大同小异及相差悬殊的定义,但在法学界内确有公认或获得大多数学人认可的基本定义。本文即试图澄清被人 们弄得混乱不堪的“法治”定义,南郭竭诚欢迎任何人讨论与争辩。

 

郭国汀

 

温家宝在答记者问中共当局将如何处理胡佳案时称:“我国是个法治国家,中国政府将依法处理胡佳案”。随后胡佳即因六篇博客文章,被中共暴政枉法重判三年半!近日外交部发言人秦刚同样在新闻发布会上称:“中国是个法治国家,中国政府会依法处理刘晓波案”,预计刘晓波将因20馀篇博文及《零八宪章》被流氓暴政以文字狱枉法重判。

 

日前,民运理论家徐水良先生在驳斥刘路有关“石首暴徒”的谬论时却称:“法制是法治赖以指导行动的抽象的制度层面,法治是法制赖以贯彻的具体的行动(治理)层面两者互为依存,不可分割”;“任何法律体系,都会有法治和法制两个方面不可能单独存在没有法治的法制;”任何现实社会都不可能只有法治,没有人治;或者只有人治,没有法治”;说中国没有法治,实际上只是说,中国是法治服从人治的专制社会,而不是人治服从法治的文明社会。“中国怎么是没有法治[1]

 

按 徐先生之论,任何国家在任何时侯都有法治,中共国也有法治。不过,徐先生并未说明什么是“法治”?他称“法制赖以贯彻的具体的行动(治理)层面”即是法 治,但该行动(治理)到底为何物?令人不知其所云。事实上,徐先生的法治观,倒很象法律外行的逻辑推论,与法治的实际含义相去甚远。至于徐先生指责他人论 及法治都是“低水准的学者”,我实在确看不出徐先生的高明之处,尽管徐先生可能是民运人士中理论水准较高的一位。

 

那么到底什么是法治?中共专制暴政下是否有法治?法治与法制之间的关系到底如何?

 

 

一、法治的定义

 

任何争论首先必须界定争论主题,明确其定义,否则难免各自说东辩西,公婆互相有理,鸡对鸭讲,以致离题万里。

 

首先从词源上看,法治据称转译自日文,而英文原文至少有如下同语:“The rule of law[法律的统治(简称法治)] ,supremacy of law[法律至上],legal state[法律国家];美国法学界多用“ government under law[法律的管制],government of laws and not of men[法律的而非人的管制],“due process of law[正当程序法]取代“法律的统治(法治)称谓。据此,大体上可知[法治]一词有其特定的含义,主要指法律的统治,法律至上,法律的管制。强调和突出的是法律的至高无上。

 

其次,从众多法学家给法治下的各种定义,我们可以进一步了解法治的具体含义。

 

“法治(法律的统治),亦称做法律至上,这一法律格言是指,判决必须按照已知的原则或法律做出,其适用不受任意裁决权(自由决定权)的干预。该格言旨在防范统治者的专制。而专制一词源于拉丁语,表明某一裁决是按照裁决者的任意,而非根据法治做出”[2]

 “法律统治(法治)术语在英国法中的原始含义是指个体不得超越法律,意指政府行为应当符合某种事先确定的标准。如今,就政府的行为而言,法治概念通常由司法审查明确。它指政府的决定,必须透明并符合由一个独立的机构(法院)事先确定的标准”。[3]

 

“法律的统治或法律至上(即法治),是议会至上的第二层次的含义;美国学者则乐于用“法律的管制”、法律的管制而非人的管制”或“正当程序法”取代“法律的统治”。法治一词是戴西首创,但可以追溯到中世纪之“法律应当统治”。[4]

 

“法治乃涉及通过事先确立的和众所周知的法律,调整国家与个人之间关系的规则。国家与个人一样,受法律管制,必须受法律制约并服从法律。国家服从法律的义务,是法治生存的核心。若无此种义务,国家针对个人的权力便不能被有效限制”。[5]

 

治的进一步要求乃是必须遵守法律。任何人,无论其地位身份如何,无论是公民个人,还是政府官员或是议员,均必须遵守法律。而任何违反法律的人,必须提交法院依法审判。用戴西的话说即:‘任何人不得超越法律’”。[6]

 

“首先,法治规定法律高于政府和个人。简言之,有一个高于一切的法律。其次,法治要求创设和维护那些保护和包含规范化次序更为一般原则的实际制定法。法治的第三方面的内容乃是,所有公共的权力必须有其法律规则的最终渊源。质言之,国家和个体之间的关系必须受法律的制约”。[7]

 

“法治或法律至上是指一种政治观念,要求政治社区当局在授权结构范围内,按既定程序,已知的法律规则和标准,行使权力,对于那些受法律制约的人创设某种合理的期望”。[8]

 

Ivor Jennings爵指出:“法治仅是指存在法律和秩序,并意味着在一个政治社会中,基于某种法律体制,而非否认法律的无政府状态。质言之,法律关系取代了暴力关系”。[9]

治是指法律的管制而非人的管制的原则;即便国王也不能高于法律;有某种更高的法律,所有的法律和法规若要被视为合法必须进行调整;它是管制管理者的法律”。[10]

 

“法治国家是指承认作为立法者创制的法律规范,约束其作为行政部门本身的国家”。[11]

 

治的中心意思乃是法律统治或法律至上,所有的统治或权力必须源于正当颁布实施的法律或业已确定的法律”。[12]

 

“法治是管制管理者的法律”[13]

 

“人民应当受法律的管理并服从法律”。[14]

 

“在法律内以及在法律面前的平等”。[15]

 

“在法律的眼睛里我们全部是平等的”。[16]

 

“国王不在任何人之下,但在上帝和法律之下”。[17]

 

“传统的英国和欧洲大陆版本的法治拒绝任何针对公共权力的绝对保护”[18]

 

 凯斯给法治的定义乃是:“立法必须限制在处理个体权利时的行政和司法权”。[19]

 

“法治的基础在于约束法官于法律之下,并使行政部门从属于法律”。[20]

 

“法官不仅是法律的仆人,而且是法律的监护人。这也是为何司法应当独立的理由”。[21]

 

 “法治是指个人,群体和政府均应服从和顺服法律的管理,而不受任何个人或团体的任意行为的制约”。[22]

 

“法治要求司法裁决,必须由一个不受政府行政或立法部门影响或压力的独立法院做出”。[23]"

 治在“依据法律的正义”意义上更能保护权利和确保正义。[24]

 

“人民并非法律的仆人,但法律是人民的仆人,除非法律向人民提供恰当的服务,人民不会,也不应该,更不能服从该法律”。[25]

 

从上述与法治有关的定义,可见法治概念的内含极为丰富,包括叁方面的内容,一是有关个人团体国王的权利地位:(1任何人不得超越法律,政府行为须符合既定的法律;(2在法律内及在法律面前人人平等;(3国王不在任何人之下,但在上帝和法律之下,国王不能高于法律;(4)个人,团体和政府均应服从和顺服法律的管理,而不受任何人的任意行为的制约;(5)国家与个人一样,必须受法律管制,制约并服从法律;(6任何人,无论其地位身份如何,无论是公民个人,还是政府官员或议员或总统,均必须遵守法律;;(7)法律高于政府和个人,国家和个体之间的关系须受法律制约;8)任何违反法律的人,必须提交法院依法审判二是对权力法官政府和国家的约束:(1立法者制定的法律,约束国家本身;(3所有的统治或权力须源于正当颁布实施的法律或业已确定的法律;(4判决必须按照已知的原则或法律做出,旨在限制任意裁决权;(5法律的管制,是管制管理者的法律6)拒绝绝对保护公共权力;(7)法律关系取代暴力关系;8)法律至上,但法律是人民的仆人;(9约束法官于法律之下,并使行政部门从属于法律。三是按既定程序调整:1)通过事先确立的和众所周知的法律,调整国家与个人之间关系的规则:(2当局在授权范围内,按既定程序,已知的法律规则行使权力;

 

据此,我的定义乃:法治是指国家按照既定的法律原则、规则、标准和程序,对全体社会成员,按公平平等原则,同等适用、规范、处理和审理一切社会、政治、经济、法律、文化、宗教等事务和交易的实体和程序规则的总称。 任何人包括国王或总统及国家本身均不得超越法律并受到法律的同等制约、约束与保护,任何人在法律面前一律平等,任何人违法一律受到独立司法审判的同等追 究,法律高于并约束任何个人、团体、国王、总统、议员、立法者和国家本身。法治旨在制止任意决定权的滥用,以保护个体权利不受非法侵害。

 

二、流氓专制暴政下根本没有法治生存的馀地

 

根据该定义,中共专制暴政下显然不可能有法治。徐先生论断中国存在法治之说弄错了对象,因为徐先生误将法治视为含义不明的“行动(治理)层面”的东西,这似乎不是法学界讨论争辩的法治内含。尽管徐先生之论,纯从逻辑上看,似乎有理。但是,法治并非出自讲究逻辑推理演译法的大陆法系,而是源于判例归纳法的英美法系;因此,法治并非逻辑的产物,而是西方政治学和司法经验的创制物。确切地说,法治甚至不是西方文化的产物,而仅是英国历史和其司法实判实践的独特创制物。因此徐水良中共国有法治之论断恐怕很难成立。

 

“法治”一词是1892年, 由英国法学家戴西首次提出,尽管法治的部分观念早在两千三百年前的古希腊雅典的伯拉图和亚里士多德便已提出,从严格意义上说,现代法治并非西方文化的产 物,而是英国历史与司法实践独特的创制物,而且法治观念与法治实践也非一回事。但是非完全意义上的法治观念,也非纯属西方独有,12世纪时便有伊斯兰法学家主张:“任何官员包括哈里发(caliph即教主和统治者)均不得超越法律”[26] 有学者论证:法治源于西方政治学和西方文明,东方历史上虽然有法制,却没有法治精神。事实上法治起源于《旧约》,是由基督教推向世俗社会的。[27]

 

中 国历史上刑事法律相当发达完备,从秦律到大唐律至大清律,法条详尽细致,但由于历朝历代皇权统治者始终重农轻商,重集体轻个人,导致中国法制史中几乎没有 任何值得一提的商法、民法,甚至没有公、私法的概念,至于程序法也几乎等于零。事实上,在民国以前,中国甚至从来没有法院,也没有律师。行政权与司法权是 由县太爷合二为一,而县官审理案件,主要靠刑讯逼供间或智慧,而从未依据诉讼程序规则,因此中国历史上从未有过法治观念也就不足为奇。“刑不上大夫”是我 国古代耳熟能详的法律原则,“朕就是法律”则是古代皇帝一以贯之的法律原则,皇帝的自由决定权任意决定臣民的生死富贵,皇权至上,法律仅是约束制约臣民的 工具,皇帝与国民的关系是主子与奴仆的关系,那有半点法治精神?至于毛泽东的“最高指示”本质上与帝王的圣旨并无二致,只不过远比历朝历代皇帝更为拙劣、 蛮横和残暴罢了。因此,可以断言1911年以前,中国历史上从未有过任何实质意义上的法治,至于是否有过零星的法治观念南郭孤陋寡闻迄今未闻;

 

1911年至1949年 期间确有不完全意义上的法治,从国民政府法院审判共党总书记陈独秀案可以印证当时的中国司法独立货真价实。共党的武装判乱,构成“非法暴力颠复合法政府 罪”至为明显,然而作为犯罪集团首犯的陈独秀,不但得到公开公正的审判,而且获得强有力的律师抗辩,当局既未阻止妨碍或威胁辩护律师,也未制止封杀陈案的 新闻报导,最终陈独秀居然仅判四年徒刑。足以证实民国法官的独立审判权货真价实。

 

1949年 迄今,法治在台湾继续发杨光大,日益完善,台湾的司法公正有目共睹,前总统陈水扁因涉嫌贪污受贿而受到独立公正的司法追究即是明证。而中国大陆则自中共依 赖非法暴力加欺骗手段盗国窃政之日始,法治从未有过,民国原有之法治则早已荡然无存。如今中共宪法虽然明定要建设法治国家,中共党魁及党用文人也口口声声 称中国是个法治国家,但皆属自欺欺人的梦呓。特别是自胡锦涛专权以来,中共暴政日益流氓化,而流氓最典型的特征之一正是根本不讲法律、道理、原则、规则, 唯耍流氓耳!因此,在流氓专制暴政下决不可能有任何法治生存的馀地,而中共政权则是个如假包换的流氓专制暴政!

 

三、法治与法制之间的关系

 

法 治与法制两者一字之差,实质相差万里;前者指法律的统治的简称亦叫做法律至上,与“依法治理”含义并不相同,乃自由人权宪政民主社会的一项前提条件;后者 是法律制度的简称,即便专制极权暴政也可能有法制;与法治对应的词乃是人治而非法制。法治除了法律至上之义外,含有法律(包括修改或废除法律的规则)是恒 定的、众所周知的(至少是可知的)、及普遍适用的三大要素,因此法律面前人人平等、法律至上、任何人不得超越法律为其题中之义。法制只不过是依法处理争议 纠纷有法可依之意,充其量仅有依法治理之意,主要指法律工具主义;至于法律是否恒定,是否国民能知道或是否普遍适用则无关紧要;法制也不含有法律面前人人 平等,国王与平民同等适用法律,或法律至上的含义。因此,特权阶级与普通国民分别享受不同的法律待遇、朝令夕改、厚此薄彼、依秘密潜规则处理各种事务,在 法制社会乃家常便餐,政府或当权集团任意破坏法律司空见贯;凡此种种在法治社会则完全不可能。因为法治社会那怕总统犯罪也同样受到同等法律追究,而法制社 会绝不存在国王与平民同罪之概念。中共专制暴政充其量有法制而绝无法治,因此,胡、温及秦刚辈信口胡说中国是“法治国家”,纯属法盲的瞎扯,或是公然强暴 国民意志的谎言。而徐水良君的法治与法制论则恐怕搞错了对象。 

 

 

2009712日第175个反中共极权专制暴政争自由人权民主绝食争权抗暴民权运动日

 

 

 

 


[1]徐水良,“驳刘路的两个谬论兼批夸大法治、贬低法制等谬论”,博讯2009629日:法制和法治讲的是法律体系的不同方面,法制讲制度层面,法治讲行动(治理)层面。法制是法治赖以指导行动的抽象的制度层面,法治是法制赖以贯彻的具体的行动层面两者互为依存,不可分割。 法制,是法治得以进行的前提和基础;而法治,必须中心法制、服从法制。法治不能离开法制,否则,法治就不成其为法治。法制也不能离开法治,否则,法制就只是一纸空文任何法律体系,都会有法治和法制两个方面不可能单独存在没有法治的法制,因为没有法治、没有实际执行法制,法制就停留在空想,不成为法制没有法制的法治,没有法制为指导为依据,法治也就根本不存在。实际上,任何现实社会都不可能只有法治,没有人治;或者只有人治,没有法治。问题只是谁服从谁的问题。人治服从法治,还是法治服从人治,区分了现代文明社会和野蛮专制社会。因此,说中国没有法治,实际上只是说,中国是法治服从人治的专制社会,而不是人治服从法治的文明社会中国的法律体系每天都在运转,政府、公安、检察、法院,每天都在根据它们自己的需要或人治的需要,引用法律条文,进行治理,怎么是没有法治?不过这种法治服从于人治,人治可以否定法治而已。 实际上,无论是法治和人治,还是法治和法制,都是不可能完全分割开来的,都只能互相依赖而存在的”。

[2] The rule of law, also called supremacy of law, is a general legal maxim according to which decisions should be made by applying known principles or laws, without the intervention of discretion in their application. This maxim is intended to be a safeguard against arbitrary governance. The word "arbitrary" (from the Latin "arbiter") signifies a judgment made at the discretion of the arbiter, rather than according to the rule of law.

[3] The original meaning of the Rule of Law phrase in English law was that no individual should be "above" the law-meaning that governmental actions should be accountable to some set of predetermined standards. Today, with respect to actions initiated by government, the ROL idea is usually manifested by judicial review. It means that government decisions must be transparent and accountable to predetermined standards applied by an independent body, probably a court.

[4] It may be traced back to the medieval notion that law ought to ruleBeinart, B. The Rule of Law,  Acta Juridica  (1962)p 99。)the rule or supremacy of the law was the second main feature, in addition to the sovereignty of parliament, American writers, usually do not use the expression and prefer phrases such as "government under law", or "government of laws and not of men", or "due process of law".

[5] The rule of law refers to the regulation of the relationship between the state and individuals by pre-established and knowable laws. The state, no less than the individuals it governs, must be subject to and obey the law. The state’s obligation to obey the law is central to the very existence of the rule of law. Without this obligation, there would be no enforceable limit on the state’s power over individuals...." (Hitzig)

[6] A further consequence of the Rule of Law is that the law must be observed. Every person, whatever his position or status, must do so, whether he be a private citizen or a member of government or of parliament, and those who transgress the law must be brought to book according to law as adjudicated upon by the courts. "No man is above the law" states Dicey

[7] First, that the rule of law provides that the law is supreme over the acts of both government and private persons. There is, in short, one law for all. Second, ... the rule of law requires the creation and maintenance of an actual order of positive laws which preserves and embodies the more general principle of normative order". ... A third aspect of the rule of law is ... that "the exercise of all public power must find its ultimate source in a legal rule. Put another way, the relationship between the state and the individual must be regulated by law." (Re References re Secession of Quebec) 

[8] Kenneth Henley ,The Impersonal Rule of Law, 5 Can. J. L. & Jurisprudence (1992) pages, 299 The rule or supremacy of law is a political ideal requiring that the authority of the political community be exercised only within the confines of ordained structures, established procedures, and known legal rules and standards, creating reasonable expectations on the part of those subject to the law.

[9] as Sir Ivor Jennings has pointed out, the Rule of Law simply means the existence of law and order and denotes that a political society rests on some system of law and not on anarchy  which disregards law,[9] in other words that legal relations have been substituted for relations of force.[9]

[10] The Rule of Law, is that principle of a government of laws and not of men; that not even a king is above the law; that there is a higher law against which laws and ordinances must be measured if they are to be treated as legitimate. It is a law which governs the governors. 

[11] the state in which the Rule of Law prevails simply as the state that acknowledges the legal norms created by itself as legislator as binding upon itself as executive.

[12] the Rule of Law its central meaning that the law rules or is supreme in every society, that all rules or powers must derive from duly enacted or established law.

[13] The Rule of Law is a law to govern the governors.

[14] That people should be ruled by the law and obey it (Rossiter) 

[15] Equality in the law as well as before the law (References re French Language) 

[16] All are equal in the eyes of the law (References re French Language) 

[17] the king "is under no man, but under God and the law" (Bracton).

[18] the traditional English and continental versions of the Rule of Law deny any absolute protection against public power

[19] As Keith puts it, in defining the Rule of Law, "legislation must favor the limitation of execu- tive and judicial power to deal arbitrarily with individual rights." (In Ridges, Constitutional Law of England 26 (Keith ed., London, 1937)).

[20] essential to the Rule of Law as "bind" the judge to the law, subordinate the executive to the law

[21] Not only is the judge the servant of the law, he is also its guardian. This explains the need for judicial independence.

[22] That individuals, persons and government shall submit to, obey and be regulated by law, and not arbitrary action by an individual or a group of individuals.

[23] The rule of law requires that (judicial) decisions be made by a court which is independent of any influence or pressure by the executive and legislative branches of government" (R v Campbell) 

[24] the Rule of Law in the sense of justice according to law is much more likely to protect rights and to ensure justice.

[25] people are not the servants of law, but law is the servant of people, and that unless law serves its proper function, the people will not, ought not, and cannot be expected to obey "the law."

[26] The supremacy of law is not an exclusively western notion. For example, it was developed by Islamic jurists before the twelfth century, so that no official could claim to be above the law, not even the caliph. 

[27] The idea of the rule of law (regulations) and not the man was proclaimed in the Western European legal and political theory a long time before the idea of democracy came into picture. In fact, the idea of the rule of law was taken over from Old Testament, and the thought became incorporated into the Western civilization through Christianity. 

 


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发表评论 评论 (15 个评论)

回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:17
“从亚里士多德通过阿奎纳至福勒的自然法传统,一直对法律理性保留了某些伯拉图式的信心。并对从该传统派生出的自然权利亦保守着信念:络克对法治的个人主 义解释,亦对人类理性力量持有同样坚定的信心。罗尔斯对法治的诠释并将其置于理性立宪主义范围内,继续了亚里士多德学派传统,虽然理性收益没有一种现实主 义的道德理论,甚至不存在上帝之音的耳语”。自然法是西方政治法律渊源流长经久不衰的法学基础理论,与上帝法密切相关。自然正义,自然权利与自然规律制约 着人类社会的发展,使得堕落的人类不至于偏离正道太远。

The natural law tradition from Aristotle through Aquinas to Lon Fuller has retained something of the Platonic confidence in legal reason. And the natural rights offshoot of this tradition kept the faith as well: Locke's individualist revision of the rule of law displays the same robust confidence in the power of reason in human affairs. Rawls's account of the rule of law and its place within a reasoned constitutionalism continues the Aristotelian tradition, though reasoning proceeds without a realist moral theory, and there is not even a whisper of the voice of God.
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:18
“由国会或者议会制定,或由法官制作的法律,确定受其控制的游戏规则。如果这些法律并不明智或不适当,秩序并不会随之而来,秩序来自良法的有效强制执行。 如果适当制定的法律不被执行和服从,那么整个执法的职责便会陷于声誉毁坏。必须检讨我们是否一直在制作不适当的法律,或者是否我们仅仅是未能执行良法”。 中共国的严重问题在于:立法者不合格,立法机构纯属中共流氓一党撑控,而司法不公最根本的原因在于立法不公,由于中国的立法机构,即全国人民代表大会的所 谓代表们,既不合格又不合法,要么没有能力要么没有客观公正的原则立场,结果必然使得其制定的法律仅是反映当权犯罪利益集团的意志。正如污染河源后,整条 河必定被污染一样,立法不公导至司法肯定不可能公正,进而严重损害了“正义、公平、公正、公道”的司法原则。

The laws which are enacted by Congress or Parliament, or made by the Judges, lay down the rules by which the game is controlled. If these laws are not wise and appropriate, order will not follow. Order comes from the efficient enforcement of good laws. If laws properly made are not enforced and obeyed, the whole business of law enforcement falls into disrepute. we must decide whether we have been making bad laws, or whether we are just failing to enforce the good ones.
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:19
“超实在规范和反抗权利的后法国革命的宪法理论,抛开了其自然法的骨架,让位于将国家的观念作为法律的最后渊源。如果“法律”意味着立法机构的任何行为, 那么个人不会比在绝对专制权力下的国家更安全。因此,法律不应称做统治阶级的意志,而是上帝或自然法的意志。最高法律来自上帝的意志。违背此种意志的任何 制定法均属无效应被废除”。马克思之“法律是统治阶级意志的体现”之说与“我是流氓我怕谁”异曲同工,纯属强盗流氓法理,这是所有共产党国家无一例外制定 大量恶法的根源。自然法或上帝法是万法之母,凡是违背自然法原则的任何制定法必定是恶法,而凡是恶法自始无效。人民没有义务遵守任何恶法。因为恶法不是法 律,而是对法律的反动。中共流氓暴政在制定恶法方面登峰造级,因为中共专制暴政同时是个流氓暴政。胡氏专权后中共暴政的流氓本性日益加剧,勇敢坚决终止胡 氏流氓继续作恶,是每位中国法律人的义务和责任。

the post-French Revolutionary constitutional doctrine cast off its natural law shell, super-positive norms and rights of resistance yielded to the notion of the state as the final source of law. If "law" means any act of the legislative body, then the individual is no safer than under absolutism vis-h-vis the power of the state. therefore, law should not be so called the will of the ruling class, but the will of the God or the law of nature. the top law come from the will of the God. any statuted law against such will should be void and invalid.
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:20
个人,群体和政府均应服从和顺服法律的管理,而不受任何个人或团体任意行为的制约。法律的管理而非人的管理,有别于人治,例如,在一个君主,专制,或神权的政府,是由一个人或少部分人任意制定和变更其管理规则。在一个追求法治至上的政治体制中,法律在政府和人的行动上是最高的。法治词组经常可在当代宪法中发现。例如,加拿大宪法包括下述句子:加拿大是建立在承认上帝至上和法治原则基础之上的。在加拿大和美国,有关法治在宪法判例中大量存在。从该词组的三个词扩张包括如下原则:
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:21
首先,法治规定法律高于政府和个人。简言之,有一个高于一切的法律。其次,法治要求创设和维护那些保护和包含规范化次序更为一般原则的实际制定法。法治的第三方面的内容乃是,所有的公共权力必须有其法律规则的最终渊源。质言之,国家和个体之间的关系必须受法律的制约。

"(F)irst, that the rule of law provides that the law is supreme over the acts of both government and private persons. There is, in short, one law for all. Second, ... the rule of law requires the creation and maintenance of an actual order of positive laws which preserves and embodies the more general principle of normative order". ... A third aspect of the rule of law is ... that "the exercise of all public power must find its ultimate source in a legal rule. Put another way, the relationship between the state and the individual must be regulated by law."
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:22
法律统治(法治)术语在英国法中的原始含义是指个体不得超越法律,意指政府行为应当符合某种事先确定的标准。

The original meaning of the Rule of Law phrase in English law was that no individual should be "above" the law-meaning that governmental actions should be accountable to some set of predetermined standards.
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:22
法治要求司法裁决必须由一个不受政府行政或立法部门影响或压力的独立法院做出。

"The rule of law requires that (judicial) decisions be made by a court which is independent of any influence or pressure by the executive and legislative branches of government"
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:23
在我们的社会中法律是最高的。任何人,包括政治家、政府、法官、团体及公民均不得高于法律。我们均受法律制约。我们并不选择我们应遵守和服从的法律。我们每个人均必须接受法治,即便我们在遵守某些法律时不得不自我限制。

"The law in our society is supreme. No one - no politician - no government - no judge - no union - no citizen is above the law. We are all subject to the law. We do not get to pick and choose the laws we will observe and obey. Each of us must accept the rule of all laws, even if we have to hold our noses in complying with some of them."
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:24
法治涉及通过事先确立的和众所周知的法律,调整国家与个人之间关系的规则。国家与个人一样,受法律管制,必须受法律制约并服从法律。国家服从法律的义务,是法治生存的核心。若无此种义务,国家针对个人的权力便不能被有效限制。

"(T)he rule of law refers to the regulation of the relationship between the state and individuals by pre-established and knowable laws. The state, no less than the individuals it governs, must be subject to and obey the law. The state’s obligation to obey the law is central to the very existence of the rule of law. Without this obligation, there would be no enforceable limit on the state’s power over individuals...."
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:24
立宪主义和法治是宪法的基石,并反映我们国家的承诺:一个全体社会成员均受持续的规则、原则和作为最高法律渊源及权威的宪法价值的约束有序的公民社会。

"Constitutionalism and the rule of law are cornerstones of the Constitution and reflect our country’s commitment to an orderly and civil society in which all are bound by the enduring rules, principles, and values of our Constitution as the supreme source of law and authority."
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:25
法律应当是人民能够受其指导的规范。The law should be such that people will be able to be guided by it
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:26
人民应当受法律的管理并服从法律。That people should be ruled by the law and obey it
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:26
在法律内以及在法律面前人人平等Equality in the law as well as before the law
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:26
在法律的眼睛里我们全部是平等的。All are equal in the eyes of the law (References re French Language)
回复 郭国汀 1/12/2011 15:27
遵循法治乃是指导我们的日常社会和法律交往,防止无政府,并将我们作为人民组合在一起。"Adherence to the rule of law is what guides us in our everyday social and legal interactions, prevents anarchy, and hold us together as a people."

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